Steen R., Selås V. & Stenberg I. (2006) Impact of weather on annual fluctuations in breeding numbers of Lesser Spotted Woodpecker Dendrocopos minor in Norway. ARDEA 94 (2): 225-231.
Weather may play an important role in population dynamics by effects on breeding success and survival. To establish the impact of weather on populations of Lesser Spotted Woodpecker Dendrocopos minor we compared numbers in two regions in Norway with relevant temperature data. During 1990 to 2002 observed spring numbers varied from 1 to 52 in the western region and from 1 to 21 in the southern region. In a multiple regression model, December and June temperatures in the preceding year explained 56% of the observed variation in numbers, the relation was positive in both cases. We presume that winter temperatures exhibit a direct effect on winter survival of Lesser Spotted Woodpeckers by heat loss, whereas weather conditions during spring have an indirect effect on breeding performance by affecting food production.